TLR Red Rules

General Overview

A. Formatting, Usage, and Punctuation

Rule A.1: Spacing

Rule A.2: Smart Quotes

Rule A.3: Contractions

Rule A.4: Long and Complex Sentences

Rule A.5: Active Voice

Rule A.6: Umbrella Paragraphs

Rule A.7: Bias in Writing Mechanics

Rule A.8: Hyphens, En Dashes, and Em Dashes

Rule A.9: Capitalization

Rule A.10: Serial Commas

Rule A.11: Naming Conventions for Articles, Comments, and Notes

Rule A.12: Possessives of Words Ending in “S”

Rule A.13: Ethnic and National Groups and Associated Adjectives

Rule A.14: Abbreviation and Acronyms

B. Citations

Rule B.1: Federal Statutes and Session Laws

Rule B.2: Special Rules for State Statutes

Rule B.3: Pinpoint Citations (“Pincites”)

Rule B.4: First Case or Statute Mention in the Main Text

Rule B.5: Use of Signals

Rule B.6: Order of Parentheticals Within a Citation

Rule B.7: Internal Cross-References and Hereinafter

Rule B.8: When Footnotes Are Required for Roadmaps

Rule B.9: Numbers in Textual Sentences

Rule B.10: Typographic Symbols

Rule B.11: Prior and Subsequent History

Rule B.12: Conference Papers

Rule B.13: More than Two Authors

Rule B.14: Citing to an Introduction, Foreword, Preface or Epilogue

Rule B.15: Citing to a Work of Art

C. Summary of Rules on Quotations

All of these guidelines are direct summaries of rules from either The Bluebook or The Chicago Manual of Style. Where these guidelines in Section C differ, please adhere to these guidelines, as they are TLR’s discretionary preferences. 

Rule C.1: TLR Quote Alteration Rules

Rule C.2: Noting Alterations & Omissions in Original

Rule C.3: Parentheticals Within Parentheticals

Rule C.4: Quotations with Fifty or More Words Within Footnotes

D. Bluebook Tips on Quotations

The following includes helpful tips for interpreting The Bluebook and CMOS rules regarding quotations. Section D does not contain stylistic preferences so much as helpful interpretations. Both The Bluebook and CMOS should be followed where any conflict or confusion arises.

D.1: Internal Quotation Marks

D.2: Maintaining Paragraph Structure in Block Quotes

D.3: Uses of Ellipses

D.4: Omitted Footnotes or Citations

D.5: Footnote or Citation Following the Text Being Quoted

D.6: Omitted Citations or Footnotes Within an Ellipsis