Rule B.4: First Case or Statute Mention in the Main Text

Return to Red Rules

The first time a case of statute name appears in the main text, TLR uses the full case/statute name, with no abbreviations, in the textual sentence. There must be a citation to the case in a footnote to the sentence. If the citation sentence includes other authorities, TLR prefers that this case citation appear first. The same rule applies to statutes. This is a TLR rule that does not appear in the Bluebook. The case/statute citation may be a short citation if the full citation is found within the five preceding footnotes or the citation may be Id. if appropriate. Follow Bluebook 4.1 for uses of Id.


In Monell v. Department of Social Services, the Supreme Court established that municipalities may be held liable for violating individuals’ civil rights.1


1 Monell v. Dep’t of Soc. Serv., 436 U.S. 658 (1978); see also Lozman v. City of Riviera Beach, 138 S. Ct. 1945, 1956 (2018) (Thomas, J., dissenting).

Return to Red Rules